Diversity is critical for resilience. One way to ensure diversity is to push authority about safety decisions down to people closest to the problem. (Entrust people at the sharp edge to do what they think is needed for safety)

High-reliability theory also recommends attuning to minority opinions, which helps diversity.

Greater diversity of agents in a complex system leads to richer emergent patterns (including for good qualities). It typically produces greater adaptive capacity. ⇒ Diversity is good for an organisation.

Diversity of people will likely enhance creativity on a team. More stories get told about the things we should be afraid of. More hypothesis might be generated about how to improve the system.

Diversity of opinion in a CS should be seen as a strength, not a weakness. The more angles and perspectives, the more opportunities to learn. (Diversity of thought through challenge questions.) One of the principles of Connectivism learning theory is that "learning and knowledge rest in the diversity of opinions".

Full optimization of a complex system is undesirable because the lack of slack and margins can turn small perturbations into large events. Diversity of opinion helps to prevent exhaustive optimization. (Use an ensemble of models to prevent overfitting)

One of the ingredients of The Reality Group.


See ‣


John Haldane [India] is a lot more diverse than Europe, let alone the U.S.A, the U.S.S.R or China, and thus a better model for a possible world organisation.