‣: A complex system that works is invariably found to have evolved from a simple system that worked. The inverse proposition also appears to be true: A complex system designed from scratch never works and cannot be made to work. You have to start over, beginning with a working simple system.

Bottom-up tinkering: ‣ and ‣.

‣: working on a topic is like building top-down castles in the air. Having a specific problem guides the discovery and grounds it in the reality. ‣.

The first of the Criteria of practical truth is that it works.

While doing a bottom-up design, remember to try to Keep design simple.

Part of ‣.

Epistemological analogy to this engineering principle is to ‣ and that one should Study the basics of science and math before higher-level theories ("bottom") before studying or forming higher-level theories ("top").


See also: